Common cold – causes, symptoms and treatment

What is the common cold?

The common cold – widespread sickness. Affects hundreds of thousands of humans worldwide. A viral disease affects the nose and throat. Throughout this blog, we will understand the common cold

Reasons for the common cold

The factors are due to direct contact with an infected person or infected surface. When an infected person coughs or sneezes, the healthy person inhales it. In this way, the virus spreads. More reasons are with direct hand-to-hand contact.

Risk factors

Certain factors increase the risk of the common cold. They are

  • Weak immune system
  • Exposure to contaminated individuals in crowded places
  • Lack of proper hygiene
  • Seasonal changes in weather

Symptoms of the common cold

  • Nasal symptoms
  • Runny nose
  • Sneezing
  • Congestion
  • Throat symptoms
  • Sore throat
  • Coughing
  • Hoarseness
  • General symptoms
  • Fatigue
  • Mild headache
  • Low-grade fever
  • Watery eyes

Treatment options

No proper treatment to reduce the virus. Control measures include

  • Hydration and rest
  • Proper rest for 8 hours
  • Saying hydrated throughout the day
  • Over-the-counter medicines
  • Decongestants, cough syrup and ache relievers can reduce the spread
  • Home remedies
  • This involves gargling, steam inhalation


Such measures include

  • Regular handwashing with soap or sanitiser
  • Avoiding contact with infected individuals
  • Cover mouth and nose while coughing or sneezing
  • Disinfecting touched surfaces


The common cold affects people of all age groups. Signs and symptoms can be bothersome. Taking critical symptoms can limit the serious effects and spread of the virus.

Written by Arti ayer, MSc  — Medically reviewed by  Nutrition